The Women's Health Initiative (WHI) is a long-term national health study focused on strategies for preventing heart disease, breast and colorectal cancer, and osteoporotic fractures in postmenopausal women. Launched in 1993, the WHI enrolled 161,808 women aged 50-79 into one or more randomized Clinical Trials (CT), testing the health effects of hormone therapy (HT), dietary modification (DM), and/or
calcium and Vitamin D supplementation (CaD) or to an
Observational Study (OS). At the end of the initial study period in 2005, WHI Extension Studies (2005-2010,
2010-2020) continued follow-up of all women who consented.
This ground-breaking study changed the way health care providers prevent and treat some of the major diseases impacting postmenopausal women. Results from the WHI Hormone Trials have been estimated to have already saved $35.2 billion in direct medical costs in the US alone. To date, WHI has published over 1,400
articles and approved and funded 289 ancillary studies.
Interested scientists are encouraged to submit paper and ancillary study proposals for using WHI data. To assist in this, this website includes an
overview of WHI,
study documentation, and information on how to
submit a paper or
ancillary study proposal.
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Mossavar-Rahmani Y, Kamensky V, Manson JE, Silver B, Rapp
SR, Haring B, Beresford SAA, Snetselaar L, Wassertheil-Smoller S. Stroke. 2019 Mar;50(3):555-562. doi: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.118.023100.
Previous research indicates associations between high
consumption of artificially sweetened beverages (ASB) and increased risk of
cardiovascular disease. We investigated these associations by separating out
stroke, its sub-types and also examined associations with coronary heart
disease and death from all causes in 81,714 Women’s Health Initiative Observational
Study participants. When comparing participants with high intake of ASB (defined
as having two or more 12 fl oz. cans of diet drinks or more per day) to
participants having no or less than once per week of diet drinks, there was an increased
risk of stroke, particularly the clot-caused or ischemic stroke sub-type: small
artery occlusion. There was also an increased risk of coronary heart disease
and death from all causes. Although we need more research in this area, these
findings add to the potentially harmful association of consuming high amounts
of ASB with these health outcomes.
when these data were collected some of the newer NCS options were
unavailable, including Stevia, a plant-based product as opposed to the
synthetically created products like saccharine, aspartame or similar. We
do not know whether there is a difference in outcomes but suggest
caution until more data become available.
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